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The Galactic Republic was a federation of hundreds of planets and sentient species spanning across the known galaxy. Republic member worlds were represented by delegates in the Republic Senate. The entire government apparatus and bureaucracy was overseen and expedited by the head of the Senate, the Republic's Supreme Chancellor. After centuries of existence during the Clone Wars era the existence of this Galactic Republic is threatened by the secessionist forces of the Confederacy of Independent Systems.
War with the Confederacy
Over time, various planets, star systems, and commercial organizations began to lose trust or were fed up with the corruption that had gone on in the Republic. Under the influence of two Sith Lords, eternal enemies of the Republic these systems and commerce guilds plotted to leave and ultimately to destroy the Republic. They in turn united together and formed the Confederacy of Independent Systems.
When Jedi were sent to the planet Geonosis to investigate the activities going on there, war broke out, causing the Separatists to unleash the Droid Army that they had been constructing. In retaliation, The Republic countered by sending out an army of their own. This Grand Army of the Republic army was made up clones grown Kamino. With the first battle on Geonosis, the Clone Wars had begun.
The Supreme Chancellor Palpatine was, at one time, the Senator of the planet Naboo. Before the start of the Clone Wars, the Republic had been blamed for being corrupt, as regards the bureaucrats and Senators that ran it. When the Queen of Naboo spoke in front of the Senate to ask for aid against the Trade Federation, she also cast a vote of "No Confidence" in the leadership of the presiding Chancellor Finis Vallorum with persuasion from Palpatine himself.
The previous Chancellor was voted out of office, and was replaced by Palpatine shortly after. With the threat of the Separatists growing, the Senate of the Republic voted for Palpatine to stay in office longer than he normally would, which would be up to two terms of four years.When the Separatists revealed their Droid Army and growing power, Palpatine convinced the Senate to grant him "emergency" powers, which allowed him to make decisions without the need to consult the Senate.